The city of Shusha, built by Azerbaijanis and for a long time, the absolute majority of the population was Azerbaijanis, faced serious demographic changes after the Russian occupation in the early 19th century. Like other residential areas in Azerbaijan, the settlement of Armenians to Shusha began. Under the auspices of the tsarist government, the Armenians, who had gained a temporary advantage in Shusha.
In 1905-1906, bloody terror and genocide were organized against Azerbaijanis. Although the Armenians tried to repeat these actions in 1918-1920, they were repulsed by the armed forces of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
With the establishment of the Soviet, the tragic days of Shusha began. Armenians occupying leading positions in Nagorno-Karabakh began repressions against the Azerbaijani population of the city. With the establishment of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Republic in 1923 and the election of Khankendi as its center, Shusha was deprived of the function of being the administrative center of Karabakh. Thus, the situation in Shusha and the Azerbaijanis living there has significantly deteriorated. As a result of the strange attitude by the provincial administration, the city began to decline rapidly. Many historical and architectural monuments of the Azerbaijani people were blown up and destroyed. The population has more than tripled in about 50 years. Thus, in 1917, Shusha had a population of 43,869 people, but in 1970 their number decreased to 13,664.
The revival of Shusha became possible only after National Leader Heydar Aliyev was elected the First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan in 1969. In 1977, the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan SSR adopted a resolution "On declaring the historical part of the city of Shusha a historical and architectural reserve." Important measures were taken to revive the socio-economic and cultural life of the city. As a result of all these measures, the city's population increased to 20,579 in 1989.
However, this revival, which began in Shusha, did not last long. On May 8, 1992, the city was occupied by the Armenian armed forces. During the occupation process and during the years of occupation, the historical and architectural monuments of Shusha were ruthlessly destroyed by Armenian vandals.
On November 8, 2020, the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Victorious Supreme Commander-in-Chief Ilham Aliyev addressed the nation from the Alley of Martyrs and announced the liberation of Shusha.
Shusha Tourist Attractions
Shusha fortress: The fortress, built by Panahali khan for defensive purposes, was built in an inaccessible and even besieged place in the Shusha lowland. The fortress was surrounded by dense forests on all sides and ended in ravines in some parts, which was considered an impassable barrier by the enemy.
The house of Khurshidbanu Natavan: The two-storey house of Khurshidbanu Natava, known as the famous Azerbaijani poet, khan gizi, is a historical and architectural monument of the XVIII century. On the first floor of the building there are seven service rooms for servants. There are three entrance gates on the south side. The door in the middle of them leads to the corridor, and the other two doors on the sides lead to the side rooms.
Museum-mausoleum of Molla Panah Vagif: The construction of the museum-mausoleum complex of the famous Azerbaijani poet Molla Panah Vagif began in 1977 on the basis of the project of architects A.V Salamzadeh and E.I Kanukov. The complex was opened in January 1982. The complex was built on the tomb of the great poet near the Cidir plain, a prominent place in Shusha. Here M.P. About 80 exhibits reflecting the life of Vagif in Shusha were also exhibited.
The house-museum of Uzeyir Hajibeyov: The house-museum of the great Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov in Shusha was established in 1959. The house-museum functioned until the occupation of Shusha by Armenian invaders in 1992. Along with household items belonging to the Hajibeyov family, Uzeyir Bey's personal belongings, photos, books, books dedicated to him and donated to the museum occupied an important place in the museum's exposition.